Vaccines To Prevent Covid-19: The Facts To Be Known
There seems to be no end to this covid-19 pandemic except for the hope that one day a vaccine for covid-19 will come. As far as all of the conditions have been concerned, the covid-19 vaccine has not yet been created. Researchers are trying hard to make this. Since the covid-19 vaccine has a lot to do with our lives, there is an obvious need to get informed with the necessity and facts.
What About The Research?
Coronavirus is a virus with many similarities with the already existing SARS(severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS(middle east respiratory syndrome) virus that makes common impacts like the common cold and other respiratory illnesses. From the day coronavirus started its effects, it was visible that the coronavirus is a closely related virus family to that of SARS and MERS. This similarity between coronavirus and SARS gave scientists and researchers huge benefits as the vaccine has already taken its significant components with SARS and MERS’ previous vaccine undertakings. This is the reason that coronavirus is also called SARS-CoV-2. This means that many potential approaches had already been taken in the research to develop the vaccines for SARS and MERS.
Every virulent virus that can make one infected has the presence of a protein on the capsule. Coronavirus is a crown-shaped bacteria, and this shape is the only reason that coronavirus got its present name. This virus has a spike-like structure on its body surface, also known as S-protein. The S-protein attaches itself to a human cell and reproduces there with the help of human body machinery. The vaccine is targeted to work at that protein on the surface to stop it from binding to the human body’s cell. Many other approaches to the vaccine have also been produced to target different proteins in the body of coronavirus.
The Many Challenges Of The Covid-19 Vaccines
Many challenges await the arrival of the coronavirus vaccine. Some of them have been mentioned below.
- Safety of the vaccine: safety is one of the most crucial factors of any vaccine. While vaccine research is continued, many trials have already been taken in place, but many of them had different complications. In some cases, the vaccine was able to cure the infection but caused significant side-effects like lung damage to the body of the animal. On the other hand, the complication was with the incapability of the vaccine’s effectiveness to cure covid-19.
- Protection for life: some cases have been observed with re-infection. Re-infection refers to the development of infection again in the previously coronavirus infected person. In that case, the vaccine needs to be fully adequate to prevent a re-infection.
- Protecting older people: Some other complications being vaccines work differently with different age groups. It may happen that the vaccine is not as effective or overall ineffective for persons above 50 years old. A vaccine needs to have the same effect for every age-group of people.
Ways that can develop a correct vaccine for the covid-19:
Many approaches have already been taken, while others are in the development of the covid-19 vaccine. Some of the major courses have been mentioned below:
This is a particular type of pathway where an attenuated(weakened) form of germ that causes the disease is made to enter the body of a normal human being to induce antibodies’ production. This kind of vaccine is responsible for producing an immune response. Attenuated is a term that refers to the germ’s reduced power to cause an infection in the body. The live vaccine has already been used to prevent many diseases like smallpox, chickenpox, mumps, measles, rubella, etc. This is an excellent approach to developing an effective vaccine for any virus, but it has serious drawbacks; for example, it can prove fatal to a person whose immune system is already fragile.
The covid-19 vaccine needs to be made, keeping all such complications in mind.
Inactivated vaccines are made by the use of a killed or an inactive germ causing disease. When an inactivated germ is induced in the body of a healthy human being, then there is no infection produced. Still, the vaccine is self-sufficient to produce the antibodies needed. These vaccines are effective only when given in high doses. Live vaccines are more effective and have a long-term life as compared to these inactivated vaccines. Inactivated vaccines are preceded by some booster doses that provide long-term immunity. These vaccines can handle many diseases and have been previously used for ailments like swine flu, hepatitis A, and rabies.
Genetically Engineered Vaccines
This is a type of vaccine that uses modern biotechnology techniques to produce a vaccine. Here a genetically engineered RNA or DNA is used to make the copies of S protein. The copies made of S protein induces an immune response to the virus.
How You Can Protect Yourself From Covid-19
This is a transmissible disease, meaning the infection can be transmitted from one person to another. Until a vaccine is available, we should ensure that we keep all the required safety to avoid this infection.
- Avoid close contact: make sure that you don’t indulge in a large public gathering and keep a distance of 6 feet or 2 meters minimum to ensure that you don’t get the infection. This is very much important if you are above 50 years of age.
- Wear a mask: make sure that you don’t leave home without wearing a mask. A cover is up to 70 percent capable of protecting you against coronavirus. N95 masks are the best among the masks.
- Practice proper cleanliness: make sure that you wash your hands as soon as you enter your home or touch your face. Use hand soaps or sanitizers to avoid the risk of infection. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief if someone or you sneezes or coughs. Make sure that you follow some standard safety regulations to ensure that you are safe from coronavirus. Prevention is crucial while we wait for a vaccine.
Take all necessary precautions while waiting for the vaccine to keep you and your loved ones safe. Since there are many challenges to consider while creating the vaccine, it could take some time until there is one.